Week one

Universal Design for Learning has been an incredibly important topic and ideal for me since fall semester 2019, when I initially took a professional development course at Boston College. Since then I've worked hard to integrate it into my courses, by working with designers who have been conversant with best practices. What I've learned in that time, from those experiences, and during this week of the course follows. 

Accessibility and Universal Design for Learning (UDL) are interrelated concepts aiming to create inclusive learning environments catering to the diverse needs and abilities of all learners. Accessibility focuses on removing barriers that might hinder individuals with disabilities from accessing and using educational resources and materials. In complement, UDL takes a proactive approach to design learning experiences that are natively inclusive and adaptable to a wide range of learners.

Key points of UDL and Accessibility in Learning:

One resource that was very helpful in my time at Boston College was UDOIT course audit (https://cdil.bc.edu/resources/tools/accessibility-checker/) though it is instutionally specific, other institutions have similar resources, and there are general documents available at this link to provide support. 

A second resource is in the person of a friend from graduate school who has become an accessibility evangelist (to use his term). Greg Weinstein (https://www.weinsteinux.com/accessibility)'s writing and advice on UDL have been invaulable in getting me to consider accessibility in my teaching.

Implications for Instructional (Learning) Design:

By embracing accessibility and UDL principles, educators can create inclusive learning environments that empower all learners.

Week two - ADDIE Model

The ADDIE model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) is a widely used instructional systems design (ISD) framework providing a structured and systematic approach to developing effective learning environments. 

The Five Phases of the ADDIE Model

Implications of the ADDIE Model for Instructional Design

The ADDIE model offers several key advantages for instructional design:

However, the ADDIE model also has some limitations:

Despite these limitations, the ADDIE model remains a valuable tool for instructional designers, providing a structured and systematic approach to developing effective training and learning materials. Its emphasis on learner needs, measurable outcomes, and continuous evaluation ensures the creation of high-quality learning experiences that contribute to individual and organizational success.

Week three - Dick and Carey Model

Overview of the Dick and Carey Model

The Dick and Carey model is a systematic and comprehensive framework for designing effective instruction. It is a nine-step process that emphasizes analysis and alignment in the instructional design process. The nine steps are as follows:

Step 1: Identify the Instructional Goals
Defining clearly the desired learning outcomes for instruction. The goals should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART goals).

Step 2: Conduct Instructional Analysis
Identifying the prerequisite knowledge and skills that learners need to possess before engaging in the instruction. It also involves analyzing the learning environment and available resources.

Step 3: Identify Entry Behaviors
Understanding the characteristics of the learners, such as their prior knowledge, learning styles, and motivations. It also involves considering the context in which the instruction will take place, such as the physical environment and cultural factors.

Step 4: Develop Performance Objectives
Translating instructional goals into specific and measurable objectives that describe what learners will be able to do after completing the instruction.

Step 5: Select Instructional Strategies and Activities
Choosing appropriate instructional strategies and activities that align with the learning objectives and the characteristics of the learners.

Step 6: Develop Assessment Instruments
Designing assessment instruments that measure whether learners have achieved the learning objectives. The assessment instruments should be reliable, valid, and appropriate for the level of the learners.

Step 7: Design and Develop Instructional Materials
Creating or selecting appropriate instructional materials, such as textbooks, handouts, multimedia resources, and simulations.

Step 8: Design and Conduct the Instructional Process
Implementing the instruction and managing the learning environment. It includes providing instruction, facilitating discussions, and providing feedback to learners.

Step 9: Evaluate Instruction
Collecting and analyzing data to evaluate the effectiveness of the instruction. The evaluation data should be used to identify areas for improvement and make necessary revisions to the instruction.

Step 10: Conduct Summative Evaluation
With focus on student outcomes, assess use summative evaluations to determine whether instructional goals have been met, and reassess course design accordingly

Implications of the Dick and Carey Model for Instructional Design

The Dick and Carey model has several important implications for instructional design. First, it emphasizes the importance of systematic planning and design. By following a systematic process, instructional designers ensure that their instruction is well-conceived and aligned with learning objectives.

Second, the model highlights the alignment of various elements in the instructional design process. All aspects of instruction, from the learning objectives to the assessment instruments, should be carefully considered and aligned to ensure a cohesive and effective learning experience.

Third, the model emphasizes the importance of formative evaluation. By collecting feedback throughout the design and implementation process, instructional designers can identify areas for improvement and make revisions to ensure that the instruction is meeting its intended goals.

Strengths and Limitations of the Dick and Carey Model

The Dick and Carey model is a valuable tool for designing effective instruction. However, it also has some limitations.



Overall, the Dick and Carey model is a versatile framework for effective instructional design. It is particularly well-suited for designing instruction for complex skills and specific subject areas. However, instructional designers should carefully consider the context and needs of their learners when selecting an instructional design model, and the laborious and intensive nature of the Dick and Carey model may not work for all instructional design situations.

Week four - Understanding by Design (UbD) (Backward Design)

Overview of the Understanding by Design (UbD) Model

Understanding by Design (UbD) is an instructional design approach that emphasizes designing backward from desired learning outcomes. Developed by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, UbD encourages educators and instructional designers to start with the end in mind, clearly defining what students should know, understand, and be able to do before crafting the learning experiences and assessments that will form the course of study.

The Three Stages of UbD

Establish clear and specific learning goals that align with broader educational standards and expectations. Articulate what learners should know (understanding concepts), be able to do (performance tasks), and care about (transfer of learning to real-world situations).

Design assessment strategies that effectively measure whether students have achieved the desired learning outcomes. Assessments should be varied, authentic, and aligned with the different levels of understanding (e.g., knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, evaluation, creation).

Designing engaging and purposeful learning experiences that foster deep understanding and transfer of learning. Select instructional strategies, activities, and resources that align with the desired learning outcomes and assessment methods.

Implications of UbD for Instructional Design

UbD offers several compelling implications for instructional design:

Strengths and Limitations of UbD



In conclusion, Understanding by Design (UbD) stands as a powerful framework for designing instruction that fosters deep understanding, promotes transfer of learning, and aligns curriculum, instruction, and assessment. While its implementation requires careful planning and preparation, UbD's strengths outweigh its limitations, making it a valuable tool for educators seeking to enhance the effectiveness of their teaching and learning environments.

Week five - Rapid Instructional Design

Overview of Rapid Instructional Design

Rapid Instructional Design (RID) is a streamlined and iterative approach to instructional design emphasizing speed and adaptability in creating effective learning experiences. Unlike traditional ID models, which often involve a lengthy and complex process, RID focuses on quickly developing and implementing instructional materials while maintaining quality and effectiveness.

While RID does not hold to a rigid set of steps or stages as previous models we've studied, its typical stages may include: 

Implications of Rapid Instructional Design

The RID approach has several significant implications for instructional design:

Strengths and Limitations of Rapid Instructional Design



Applications of Rapid Instructional Design

Rapid Instructional Design is particularly well-suited for the following contexts:

Rapid Instructional Design offers a practical and efficient approach to instructional design, particularly in situations where speed, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness are priorities. While its streamlined nature may not be suitable for all instructional contexts, RID provides a valuable tool for quickly developing targeted learning experiences and assessment.

Week six - Successive Approximation Model (SAM)

Overview of Successive Approximation Model (SAM)

The Successive Approximation Model (SAM) is an iterative instructional design and development process that emphasizes continuous feedback and improvement. It is meant to be a more agile approach to instructional design than traditional models like ADDIE, as it allows for earlier and more frequent feedback from stakeholders. 

The SAM model is divided into three phases:

Implications of SAM for Instructional Design

The SAM model has several implications for instructional design. First, it emphasizes the importance of early and frequent feedback. This can help to ensure that the instructional material is on the right track from the beginning and that it meets the needs of the learners.

Second, the SAM model is meant to be a more agile approach to instructional design. This means that it can be adapted to meet the changing needs of the learners and the organization.

Third, the SAM model is meant to be a more collaborative approach to instructional design. This means that it involves stakeholders from all levels of the organization, including learners, subject matter experts, and instructional designers.

Strengths and Limitations of SAM



Overall, while SAM may be a powerful and adaptable model for instructional designers, it does not strike me as a workable model for me or for higher education. SAM may be prone to scope-creep, as detailed in this module, but it may also be prone to meeting-creep and equivocation. With so many voices demanding so much space in the design process, I can't imagine how SAM results in high quality and workable instructional design and to do so in a timely manner. I can see it working in corporate worlds where a more robust version of Rapid Instructional Design is desired. But it does not strike me as appropriate for all projects or all learners.

Week seven - Learning Objectives

Course Learning Outcomes vs. Learning Objectives

Course learning outcomes and learning objectives are foundational components of instructional design. However, they have different purposes, mainly at the level of specificity.

Course learning outcomes are broad statements that describe what students will be able to do by the end of a course. They are typically written at a more general level than learning objectives.

Course learning outcomes examples:

Learning objectives are specific, measurable statements that describe what students will be able to do by the end of a week, module, or other unit of instruction. They are typically written at a more granular level than course learning outcomes.

Learning objective objectives:

Bloom's Taxonomy

Bloom's Taxonomy is a classification system for different levels of cognitive learning. It was developed by Benjamin Bloom in 1956 and has since been revised and expanded upon. The taxonomy consists of six levels:

Bloom's Taxonomy can be used to align course learning outcomes, learning objectives, and assessments. By ensuring that assessments measure students' understanding at all levels of the taxonomy, instructors can help students to achieve higher levels of learning.